Negara: The Theatre State in 19th Century Bali
Combining nice studying, interpretative originality, analytical sensitivity, and a charismatic prose kind, Clifford Geertz has produced an enduring physique of labor with effect during the humanities and social sciences, and is still the main anthropologist in America.
His 1980 ebook Negara analyzed the social association of Bali prior to it was once colonized by way of the Dutch in 1906. the following Geertz utilized his extensively influential approach to cultural interpretation to the myths, ceremonies, rituals, and logos of a precolonial nation. He chanced on that the nineteenth-century Balinese nation defied effortless conceptualization by way of the wide-spread types of political thought and the normal Western ways to knowing politics.
Negara capability "country" or "seat of political authority" in Indonesian. In Bali Geertz stumbled on negara to be a "theatre state," ruled by way of rituals and logos instead of by means of strength. The Balinese nation didn't concentrate on tyranny, conquest, or potent management. as an alternative, it emphasised spectacle. the flowery ceremonies and productions the kingdom created have been "not skill to political ends: they have been the ends themselves, they have been what the country was once for.... strength served pomp, no longer pomp power." Geertz argued extra forcefully in Negara than in any of his different books for the basic value of the tradition of politics to a society.
a lot of Geertz's prior work--including his world-famous essay at the Balinese cockfight--can be obvious as prime as much as the whole portrait of the "poetics of power" that Negara so vividly depicts.
Did i t consist simply within the awkward fragili,ty of the.ir elephantine social association, critical as that used to be. It penetrated to the very marrow of presidency: the executive a1pparatus during which t'hese males needed to act. - 7 - probably the main 9triking instance of this type of segregation-of the sep'aration of ot1her different types of sooially significan·t relationships among lords and villagers from the appropriately political (penggawa-perbekel kawula) relationsh.ip----li s the autonomy of the.
Ordinations, realm cleansings, and temple consecrations have been no diverse from the cremations) enacted, within the kind of festival, the most issues of Balinese political inspiration: the heart is exemplary, prestige is the floor of strength, statecraft is a thespian paintings. yet there's extra to i t than this, as the pageants weren't mere aesthetic decorate ments, celebrations of a domination independently present: they have been the item itself. the contest to be the heart of facilities, the axis of the.
Secured neighborhood overall healthiness, nearby populations secured the neighborhood, and, the place attainable, supraregional secured the supraregional via grandly fixed collective rite. It used to be as head of the negara adat, then, that the king "owned" the area. just like the gods, and as one, he ensured its prosperity-the productivity of its land; the fertility of i ts girls ; the well-being of its population; its freedom from droughts, earthquakes, floods, wee vils, or volcanic eruptions; its social tranquility;.
To the points of it dis stubborn here-from that of the 19th century. hence, using the previous demanding shouldn't be taken (as often it may be taken in my descriptions of "the Balinese state") as indicating that the phenomena pointed out have both disappeared or been give some thought to ably remodeled. four 9-2 three the same use of krama turns out to seem within the previous Javanese textual content, Kidung Sunda, within the kind of balakrama (bala, "army"), that means, obviously, "soldiers" or "guards" (Gonda, 1952, p. 305) .
relatives. For a few feel of the enormous volume of "work" (karya) fascinated about temple gala's, see back Belo, 1 953; Hooykaas-van Leeuwen Boomkamp, 1 ninety six 1 ; C. Grader, 1 939. fifty three -20 For a concrete instance of this partial dispersion and partial coin cidence of club between co-present company teams, sekas, in a single Balinese "desa," see C. Geertz, 1 964. despite the fact that, even in so de viant a village as Korn's Tnganan (Korn, 1 nine three three ), the locus classicus of dorpsrepubliek theorizing, it may be visible.