Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World
guns of organic and chemical struggle were in use for hundreds of thousands of years, and Greek hearth, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs, Adrienne Mayor's exploration of the origins of arguable weaponry, attracts remarkable connections among the legendary worlds of Hercules and the Trojan struggle, the debts of Herodotus and Thucydides, and glossy equipment of warfare and terrorism.
Drawing on resources old and glossy, Mayor describes historic recipes for arrow poisons, booby traps rigged with plague, petroleum-based combustibles, choking gases, and the deployment of harmful animals and venomous snakes and bugs. She additionally explores the ambiguous ethical implications inherent during this type of struggle: Are those nefarious varieties of weaponry creative or cowardly? Admirable or reprehensible?
DC and different chemical munitions unload websites: Tucker 2001. Presidio: “Vile unearths” 2003. four The plans for Yucca Mountain essentially expect burial of radioactive waste from nuclear reactors, with the potential of together with nuclear guns fabrics. The feedback of the specialist panels have been solicited starting in 1993 through the U.S. division of strength (DOE) and Sandia nationwide Laboratories within the making plans for the Carlsbad guns burial web site, however the recommendations, up to date with the newest.
Caucasus, Sarmatians of Iran, Getae of Thrace, Slavs, Africans, Armenians, Parthians living among the Indus and Euphrates, and Indians. Poisoned arrows of varied varieties have been additionally identified in China, confirmed through historic texts of the second one century advert that describe the physician Hua T’o treating a general’s poison arrow wound (with a online game of chess and wine serving because the anaesthetic). within the similar period, the king of the Parthians used to be killed via a poisoned arrow within the arm, shot through the nomadic Tochari.
Historian Livy remarked within the first century BC, in the course of epidemics “the lifeless proved deadly to the unwell and the ailing both deadly to the healthy.” Thucydides, in his historical past of the Peloponnesian conflict, defined the good Plague of Athens, which originated in Egypt, unfold to Persia and Libya, and arrived in Athens in the summertime 430 BC. The virulent epidemic (probably smallpox, yet in all probability typhus, measles, or bubonic plague, in accordance with competing theories provided by means of smooth scientific historians).
To Hebrew girls. Later, within the first century BC, King Herod’s preemptive organic strike—his order to kill all Jewish boys below age two—was one other instance of the method. In Greek fantasy, through the sack of Troy, the Greek warriors killed the child son of Hector to ensure that not one of the Trojan champion’s inventory could continue to exist (the tragic scene was once featured in lots of Greek vase paintings). Greek and Roman historians record wars within which the victors killed the entire men of an enemy inhabitants.
final lodge. think the scene on the Temple of Long-Haired Apollo, god of plague, in Babylon. Lucius Verus’s generals are laying waste to Babylonia, and Cassius has completely destroyed the pleasant Greek urban of Seleuceia. Roman infantrymen burst into the temple, searching for loot ahead of environment it afire. They undercover agent the golden casket, and the monks of Apollo let the biologically devastating “accident” to occur, realizing that at the least the Roman military will agreement the plague and unfold it throughout.